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Monday, November 30, 2020

Home Lerning Daily Video std 1 to 12

 

  Home Learning Daily Video std 1 to 12 watch Home Learning Online

 DATE:- 1/12/2020
 STD:-  1 TO 12 

DD Girnar Home Learning Video, Date 01-12-2020 [Std 1 to 12]. DD Girnar Home Learning Video for Online Study Program has been started by Gujarat Education Department (GCERT and SSA). The video is broadcast online through the DD Girnar channel. 1 to 12 on the DIKSHA portal. Through this video, children can continue their studies at home. These videos have been produced by expert trainer teachers of each subject. Which is very useful for children. Even when schools are closed, children still maintain a high level of knowledge.








Gujarat government plans and plans current 2020 and upcoming 2021. Now the list of schemes of the Government of Gujarat is given in the following link in 2020 PDF format. In this file please provide a complete description of all Gujarati government scheme and current and upcoming Gujarat government schemes. You can download this file of Gujarat Sarkar Yojana 2020 and 2019 in PDF format and read the latest Sarkar Yojana current and upcoming

Several schemes for farmers have been launched by the Gujarat government. The farmer is an important and very important person for the upliftment / progress of the country. Its development is the development of that country. That is why special schemes for farmers have been launched by the Government of Gujarat and the Government of India.


Home Education Program Online Video from DIKSHA

Special assistance and various schemes for higher studies have been released by the State Government and the Government of India. These schemes are especially useful to all the people of India and Gujarat. Schemes for farmers, traders, seed manufacturers, various businesses and students who want to pursue higher studies.


Timetable for home learning study 3 to 12

No need to search mobile to find mp3 songs or videos in mobile. You want to listen to a song, watch a video, find a question, there are countless activities that you can easily do using this application.

Can reduce - increase the sound in a song or video. You can do all this by just speaking your voice.




This has been done by Paripatra Gujarat under the Study from Home Campaign for Students. The homework prepared by the SSA for home study is given every Saturday of the week. It contains all the instructions and guidelines for this homework. This paper is a must read for students, parents and teachers.



A teacher is a good person who takes the very important responsibility of shaping the lives of young and influential children. They gain great emotion, pride and true joy in their lives by walking their students on the right path. They never find any kind of partiality between good or bad students, instead they always try to get the bad people on the right path through their efforts.






A good teacher is one who spends his entire life giving quality education to his students. They inspire all students to do their best. They make the learning process very interesting and creative. Teachers try their best to get all students on the right path by positively motivating them towards studies. Good teachers leave a good impression on their students.





They equip the students with a lot of knowledge, skills and positive attitude so that the students never feel lost and can move on. They help to ensure students about their goals of education through clear vision and ideas. Without teachers in life one cannot develop mentally, socially and intellectually.


DD Girnar is being aired on the channel through the Doordarshan Kendra, Ahmedabad program. The students are benefiting from these programs with the support of all of you, there is widespread publicity under good leadership. Based on your feedback, teachers, as well as parents, have received instructions to broadcast the program for Std. 1 and 2 students through Doordarshan.



 Based on these suggestions, STD-1 and STD for STD-1 and STD-1 for DD Girnar channel through DD Girnar channel. The program will be broadcast during the 9:30 hours (except Wednesdays and Thursdays). It is desirable that students of STD. 1 and 8 watch the event in the presence of their parents or older siblings.






 If the student. 1 and 2 are young, it is very important that the instructions / information given by the teacher through TV should be exposed to them by their parents or their elder siblings and students of Std.


According to the above topic and context, it is not possible to invite students to schools for academic work in the academic year 2020-2021 starting June 8 due to the current Choro epidemic.


So that educational programs designed for STD students. 'Vande Gujarat' channel no. 9 to 12 from state level for the academic work of students. - 24 hours broadcast from 1 to 12 Doordarshan's DTH. Served.
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Wednesday, November 25, 2020

ANAND YATRA GCERT GANDHINAGAR ALL MAGAZINE

ANAND YATRA GCERT GANDHINAGAR ALL  MAGAZINE 


G.C.E.R.T. Board textbooks are very important for all types of competitive exams. English Medium Textbooks in PDF format (Std. 1 to 12)


GCERT is an acronym for Gujarat Council of Educational Research and Training. This is an educational institution of Gujarat state. Gujarat State School textbooks have been prepared by this institute. You can view or download GCERT Standard 1 to 12 books from this page. All books are certified, subject wise and chapter wise. GCERT textbooks are available free of cost through the GCERT board and anyone can download these books for free.













GCERT is an acronym for Gujarat Council of Educational Research and Training. This is an educational institution of Gujarat state. Gujarat State School textbooks have been prepared by this institute. You can view or download GCERT Standard 1 to 12 books from this page. All books are certified, subject wise and chapter wise. GCERT textbooks are available free of cost through the GCERT board and anyone can download these books for free.



People associated with the schools say the mistake could be due to a lack of coordination between the team and GCERT officials who kept the team and the curriculum together. The teachers of the subject said that the textbooks have been using the same map with 26 districts since 2012. "Then it came to our notice. Parents registered with the Gujarat Board with the belief of giving quality education to their children. But GCERT textbooks are giving wrong information. Does anyone claim responsibility for it?"



Textbook bloopers are nothing new but we have never heard of anyone being punished. The state education department should be vigilant and take action against the officials for lack of such attitude, ”the parents said. GCERT and those involved in school education have clarifications for representations on how error can occur. “This mistake can happen in two ways. First, the team failed to update the GCERT to work together and the addition of new districts in the state failed to bring them to their attention.







This map has been in use since 2012. And no one has seen the change, so the old map is still being printed, ”said Anil Rawal, principal of the primary department of Diwan Ballubhai School in Maninagar. NCERT for Mathematics and Science only by Gujarat Education Department. Textbooks have been introduced in schools; For the rest of the subjects, schools use GCERT textbooks. Ironically, GCERT director TS Joshi is also part of the team that decides the curriculum and keeps it with the book. Haresh Chaudhary, Chandresh Pipaliya, K.R. Zanzrukia and Iqbal de Vora were. Joshi did not receive a call for comment.



Nitin Pethani, Acting President, Gujarat State Board School Textbooks, said, “Textbooks may have an old map but teachers in the classroom teach according to the new map. The textbooks explicitly mention the 2010 copyright pyrite pyrite, meaning that it includes later course-wise material. If we want to change the textbook to the middle, we have to return all the books, which is not possible. When the textbooks change in the academic year 2019, the textbooks will change. "

People associated with the schools say the mistake could be due to a lack of coordination between the team and GCERT officials who kept the team and the curriculum together. The teachers of the subject said that the textbooks have been using the same map with 26 districts since 2012. "Then it came to our notice. Parents registered with the Gujarat Board with the belief of giving quality education to their children. But GCERT textbooks are giving wrong information. Does anyone claim responsibility for it?"



Textbook bloopers are nothing new but we have never heard of anyone being punished. The state education department should be vigilant and take action against the officials for lack of such attitude, ”the parents said. GCERT and those involved in school education have clarifications for representations on how error can occur. “This mistake can happen in two ways. First, the team failed to update the GCERT to work together and the addition of new districts in the state failed to bring them to their attention.



This map has been in use since 2012. And no one has seen the change, so the old map is still being printed, ”said Anil Rawal, principal of the primary department of Diwan Ballubhai School in Maninagar. NCERT for Mathematics and Science only by Gujarat Education Department. Textbooks have been introduced in schools; For the rest of the subjects, schools use GCERT textbooks. Ironically, GCERT director TS Joshi is also part of the team that decides the curriculum and keeps it with the book. Haresh Chaudhary, Chandresh Pipaliya, K.R. Zanzrukia and Iqbal de Vora were. Joshi did not receive a call for comment.
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Monday, November 23, 2020

Online Education; Home Learning Daily Video Standard 1 to 12

Online Education; Home Learning Daily Video Standard 1 to 12


 Home Learning Gujarat Videos STD 1 to 12 ST. Gujarat Education Department has started a study program for Std-D students. 3 to 12, called the "Home Learning Program." It has been aired by Doordarshan TV channel DD Girnar. The video can also be viewed on the DIDSASA portal. S.S.A. for students to study at home. 


What is the result of the study?

Learning Outcome is the result of learning the meaning in general Gujarati, Learning Outcome describes the knowledge and skills acquired by the end of the study year. The knowledge and skills gained describe what will be useful to them. Learning Outcome The outcome determines what the student needs to know. The student establishes what is going to be learned at the end of the unit


Students were instructed to do home study by the Department of Education until they were called to the schools as per the above subject and context.







 DD Girnar is being broadcast on the channel through Doordarshan Kendra, Ahmedabad programs. Students are benefiting from all these programs with the cooperation of all of you, with wide publicity under good leadership. Based on the feedback from you, teacher friends as well as parents, instructions for broadcast programs for Std. 10 have been received. 1 and 2 students through television.


 Based on these instructions, Std-1 and Std-1 and Std-1 for Std-1 and Std-1 through DD Girnar channel. D.D. by Girnar Channel. The program will be broadcast during 9:30 hours (except Wednesdays and Thursdays). It is desirable that std. 1 and 8 watch the program in the presence of their parents or older siblings.


education, which mixes elements of online and in-person education, was a consistently popular option throughout the survey, said Dave Clayton, senior vice chairman of consumer insights at the Strada Education Network. He doesn’t believe respondents were picking hybrid because they couldn’t make a choice between online or face to face. Rather, he thinks respondents chose this feature as they see it as a best-of-both-worlds scenario.





Recent graduates of online programs rated the worth of their education above graduates of in-person programs. But most Americans (59 percent) believe that in-person education and training is more highly valued by employers than online training -- a stimulating result, as long as employers wouldn’t necessarily know that a credential was completed online unless disclosed by the work candidate. And in recent years an increasing number of major employers have supported workers in obtaining part-time online degrees with subsidized tuition programs.








Preference for online education varied among different demographic groups. People aged 25 to 49 expressed greater the If the std. 1 and 2 are young, watching TV. It is very important that the instruction/information given by the teacher should be in front of the parents or their elder siblings and Std. 5 students.


According to the above topic and context, it is not possible to call students for academic work in schools in the academic year 2020-2021, which started on June 8, due to the current Koro epidemic.


So that std. Educational programs prepared for the students of 'Vande Gujarat' channel no. - 1 to 12 24 hour broadcast, Doordarshan's DTH. Is served.











IMPORTANT LINK TO WATCH TODAY HOME LEARNING VIDEO:: 

STD 3  MATHS VIDEO

STD 4  MATHS VIDEO

STD 5  HINDI VIDEO

STD-6   MATHS VIDEO

STD-7 SANSKRIT & ENGLISH VIDEO

STD-8  SANSKRIT & HINDI VIDEO 

STD-10  MATHS VIDEO

STD-12 CHEMESTRY VIDEO



  Vande Gujarat Channel is available on free recipes. Apart from this from 19.09.2030 on TV i.e. Doordarshan Kendra D.D. Educational programs have started broadcasting from Girnar channel.



 In this regard, the principals and teachers of all the secondary and higher secondary schools have informed the parents as well as the students about this "Home Learning" program through the Reference-3 letter here. Due to the Corona epidemic, the "Home Learning for Students in Std. 9th to 12th" program is being launched on DD Girnar Channel from 1.09.2020.



Welcome to our website name is helpful in Gujarati education. We provide educational instruction. Educational, Jobs, Government Jobs Information, New Jobs Information, General Knowledge, Public Knowledge and Daily Gujarati News and Hindi News in Gujarat


Every day, students will be provided home learning study materials through social media platform and DD Girnar in the coming August Gust 2020. Study Materials Video Standard 3 to 12 DD Girnar / Diksha Portal Video. Gujarat Council of Educational Research and Training (GCERT) is a leading state. Latest tweets from Doordarshan Girnar (ddgirnarlive). ... Home Learning Classes: Educational Program.


In the degenerative mode spread in Gujarat and over world corona virus. So the whole of India School and College Ledge is closed and Disease to learn online at home. Gujarat Education Department as Home Learning Program, hence daily upload Standard Wise Home Learning "Videos.


We have put standard videos inside this website for this studio at home. If you can watch videos by time table, below is the link of this website through which you can get different types of video and lesson wise content.



5 clear words of government for schools

Can't push for fees until September.

Schools that push for fees or other costs will be prosecuted.

Schools will facilitate the payment of fees every month.

Schools will not push for textbooks or other literature, transportation, uniforms.

No one will be able to demand expenses except tuition fees.


Why Home Learning Online Education?


Corona cases are on the rise in India. Given the situation in the country, the government now felt the need to lockdown. Even in this state of lockdown, the biggest concern of the government was the school going children. The school children could not go to school due to the lockdown. It does not seem necessary to send children to school to take care of their health.




Online Shikshan In Corona Effect

Given the current situation, it was not possible to send children to school and not get education. The biggest concern of the government, if any, was the education of the children. Neither the children could go to school nor the teachers could go.




What is the decision Gujarat Government

At that time, the Gujarat government of India thought that if the children could not come to school, arrangements were made for the children to get education at home. The government decided to introduce a new system to educate children at home. The government came up with a new idea called home learning. The idea of ​​home education was that all children in the state of Gujarat should get education at home and children should not come to school. Under the idea of ​​home learning, it was decided to teach children with the help of an application called Government Microsoft Team. All of the children’s teachers and IDs and passwords were delivered to the school. Not only that, but the government is also concerned about the education of children who do not have smartphones. The government also considered making arrangements so that a teacher who could not attend school could easily teach his school children at home.

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Sunday, November 22, 2020

TEA AND PAN MASALA SHOP CLOSING LATEST UPDATES

 

 TEA AND PAN MASALA SHOP CLOSING LATEST UPDATES


Important news for Surat / Tea Russia and Pan-Mawa binders, Galla-lorries will be closed for three days


It has been decided to keep tea lari and pan galla closed for three days from today in Surat Central Zone. The decision has been taken in the wake of crowds on tea lorries and leafy alleys.








The leave of the employees of the corporation has also been canceled. Those who become super spreaders have already been prosecuted. The corporation has taken the decision as part of vigilance. In addition, a meeting was held between the Surat Municipal Commissioner and the Indian Medical Association.



A meeting was held between the Municipal Commissioner and the Indian Medical Association


In which it has been instructed to arrange a reserve bed for Corona in a private hospital. If Corona's case escalates, she is ordered to have a sufficient number of arrangements, including oxygen and a ventilator. A wise plan has also been suggested if the situation worsens in the coming days.

It is to be mentioned that a cowardly situation is being created in Gujarat day by day due to Corona. A record 1,515 people have been infected with the corona in the last 24 hours. This is the first time in Gujarat that a Korona has crossed the 1500 level. With this, the number of corona cases in Gujarat has now reached 1,95,917.





There are currently 13,285 active cases while 95 patients are on a ventilator. The total death toll from Corona with 9 more in the last 24 hours is now 3846. As per the situation of last 24 hours, more than 1 person from Gujarat is being attacked by Corona every minute.


Tea and pan-mawa gela-lorries will be closed for three days

In Gujarat, Surat rose to 29,036 after 277 people were found infected on Saturday, while the death toll rose to 947 with three deaths, an official said.

Officials noted that the number of people discharged during the day was a strong 299, including 181 within the city limits.


"Of the new cases, 173 are within the city limits and the rest are in rural areas. A total of 19,927 people have been discharged so far within the limits of Surat Municipal Corporation, with a recovery rate of 90.4 per cent," he said.

Officials said that Athwa has registered 3 new cases, the number of which has increased to 0100, which is the highest in the zone under SMC.

As far as the rural areas of the district are concerned, Kamaraj taluka is the worst affected, with 1,525 cases including 85 deaths.

SMC officials said the virus was tested on 657 people working in the textile markets here, but no report came positive.

(Only the headline and image of this report can be recreated by Business Standard

After announcing a 57-hour weekend curfew in Ahmedabad to curb the rising cases of Kovid-1 of, Aday has now imposed a night curfew in Surat, Vadodara and Rajkot.

Gujarat Deputy Chief Minister Nitin Bhai Patel on Friday said that the night curfew would come into effect from tomorrow and would remain in place till further notice.

The time for the night curfew will be from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., the deputy CMA said.

Ahmedabad lockdown

Authorities on Thursday announced a 57-hour curfew in the municipal area from Friday night to curb the spread of Kovid-1 ste in Ahmedabad city due to the increase in cases. The curfew in Ahmedabad city started at 9 pm on Friday (November 20) and will end at 6 am on Monday (November 23).

The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) on Friday said that the 600 odd city buses operated by it would not run during the curfew period.

During this "complete curfew", milk, drug stores, municipal services, petrol and gas stations, pharma companies, electrical and water facilities will remain operational and employees involved in their operations will be allowed to move to the possession of valid ID documents. , Said a senior official.

"All applicants for CA, NIC, CSIR, SSC, etc. examinations will be allowed to go and be present in Ahmedabad city if they have valid admit card and ID documents during the two days of curfew," the official said.

Passengers arriving from Ahmedabad airport and railway station will be allowed to move if they have valid tickets and ID proof during the two-day curfew in Ahmedabad city, the official added.

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A statement issued by the AMC said a night curfew would be enforced in the city from Monday from 9pm to 6pm.

The city of Ahmedabad has been witnessing a steady rise in cases of coronavirus since the beginning of this month. Out of about 140 daily cases a few months ago, the city is now seeing more than 200 seaweed-19 single-day infections. As many as 230 people from the city were infected with the coronavirus in the 24 hours ending at 5pm on Thursday, the state health department said.

No statewide lockdown: Govt


Earlier in the day, the Gujarat government rejected a new statewide lockdown to end the spread of coronavirus. Chief Minister Vijay Rupani said his government was not prepared to impose a statewide lockdown.

Rupani said a "weekly curfew" would be imposed from Friday night "as a precautionary measure" in the wake of a sudden rise in coronavirus cases in the state's commercial hub.

"Currently, there is no question of imposing lockdown in Gujarat. We have decided to impose weekend curfew only on Saturday and Sunday in Ahmedabad city. '
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Friday, November 20, 2020

COVID 19 VACCINE NEWS

 

COVID 19 VACCINE NEWS 


 Vaccine Count Down: 164 Vaccines in the World In the Pre-Clinical Phase, Know When the Vaccine Coming to the Country Will Come?


The vaccine reaches us after going through 6 stages, the vaccine being developed in the country in the third stage.






Clinical trials of 2 out of 3 vaccines result in January 2021


How long will the corona vaccine last? This question is on everyone’s mind this year. According to the WHO, efforts are underway to develop vaccines in more than 212 places, including India. The vaccine is still in the pre-clinical phase at 164 of them. In some places the vaccine has reached the phase of clinical trials. There are 21 vaccines that are in the Phase 1 trial. 16 vaccines are in phase 2 trials. There are 11 places where the vaccine is in the final stages of the trial.


Speaking of India, the director of AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences), Dr. Randeep Gularia also hopes to get the vaccine in January 2021. Corona can be got rid of in 1.5 years worldwide.







Pfizer and Biotech claim: Our vaccine is in the approval stage


The first vaccine was claimed on November 9, 2020 by Pfizer and Bioentech, one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. Corona's first vaccine is almost entirely effective in preventing infection, the company says.


The company can apply for its use by the end of November. According to the report, the vaccine has been tested on 43,500 people in 6 countries.





This is the first vaccine in the world that has shown results. The vaccine has been tested in the United States, Germany, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa and Turkey to develop antibodies against the virus in 90% of people.




Work is underway on 3 vaccines in India

India is currently working on three vaccines, including the Serum Institute vaccine, which includes India's Biotech covacin, Oxford / AstraZeneca's Covishield and Zydus Cadillac's ZyCoV-D vaccine.




READ DIVYA BHASKAR NEWS REPORT IN GUJARATI

 


1. In the third phase of Covexin clinical trial of Bharat Biotech

India has reached the final trial of Biotech Covacin. Covexin includes the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology. There are indications that the results of his trial will come in December and January.



2. Oxford / AstraZeneca

The vaccine has also reached the final trial. The Serum Institute of Pune is also involved in making it. The results of his clinical trial are expected by January 2021.



3. Zydus Cadila vaccine

The vaccine, developed by Zydus Cadila, has had good results. Its Phase-3 trial will begin shortly. 12 organizations have been selected for its human trial. These institutes also include the Institute of Medical Sciences and the Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad.

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Wednesday, November 18, 2020

ANAND YATRA 19-11-2020 GCERT-GANDHINAGAR MAGAZINE

 

ANAND YATRA 19-11-2020 GCERT-GANDHINAGAR MAGAZINE


G.C.E.R.T. Board textbooks are very important for all kinds of competitive exams. English Medium Textbooks in PDF format (Std. 1 to 12)


GCERT is an acronym for Gujarat Council of Educational Research and Training. This is an educational institution of Gujarat state. Gujarat State School text books have been prepared by this institute. You can view or download GCERT Standard 1 to 12 books from this page. All books are standardized, subject wise and chapter wise. GCERT Text Books GCERT Available free of charge by the board and anyone can download these books for free.






People associated with the schools say the mistake may have been due to a lack of coordination between the team and GCERT officials who put the team and the curriculum together. The teachers of the subject said that the textbooks have been using the same map with 26 districts since 2012. "It simply came to our notice then. Parents register with the Gujarat Board with the belief of providing quality education to their children. But GCERT textbooks are giving wrong information. Does anyone claim responsibility for it?


Textbook bloopers are nothing new but we have never heard of anyone being punished. The state education department must be vigilant and take action against officials with such a lack of attitude, ”the parents said. GCERT and those involved in school education have explanations just to offer on how the mistake can be made. “This mistake can happen in two ways. First, the content that the team worked to put together failed to update the GCERT and failed to bring to their attention the addition of new districts in the state.


GET ANANDYATRA MAGAZINE OF 19-11-2020 FROM HERE



This map has been in use since 2012. And since no one has seen the change, the old map is still being printed, ”said Anil Rawal, principal of the primary department of Diwan Ballubhai School in Maninagar. NCERT textbooks for Maths and Science only have been introduced in schools by Gujarat Education Department; For the rest of the subjects, schools use GCERT textbooks. Ironically, TS Joshi, the director of GCERT, is also part of the team that decides the curriculum and keeps it with the book. Haresh Chaudhary, Chandresh Pipaliya, K.R. Zanzrukia and Iqbal de Vora were. Joshi did not receive a call for comment.









Nitin Pethani, acting president of Gujarat State Board School textbooks, said, “Textbooks may have an old map but teachers in the classroom teach according to the new map. The textbooks explicitly mention the 2010 copyright pyrite, meaning that it contains later syllabus-wise material. If we want to change the textbook to the middle, we have to return all the books, which is not possible. When the textbooks change in the academic year 2019, the textbooks will change. "

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Tuesday, November 17, 2020

Gujarati News Papers : Read All News At One Place

 

 Gujarati News Papers : Read All News At One Place


Modern newspaper pioneers include the ancient Roman Catat Durna ("daily acts") - announcements of political and social events, and manuscript newsletters published in the late Middle Ages by various international merchants, including the Fuger family of Augsburg.


In England, a printed news book or news pamphlet usually dealt with a single local event, such as a war, tragedy, or public celebration. A well-known example of English victory over the Scots in the Battle of Floden (1513). Other pioneers include Town Cryer and Ball Leds and Broadside.






In the first two decades of the 17th century, movable-type printed regular papers were published in Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. The Dutch "Coranto" ("news currents"), which combined items from foreign journals, became the source of English and French translations published in Amsterdam in the early 1620s. Rudimentary newspapers were published in many European countries in the 17th century, and a broadsheet with social news was published in Japan during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867).

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The first English corantos appeared in London in 1621. By the 1640s, the news book had become a newspaper - the headline page dropped. The first English daily was the Daily Currant (1702–35). Until 1771 Parliament did not recognize the right of journalists to report its proceedings. The Times, which became a model for high quality and later led to mechanical innovation, was founded by John Walter in 1785, and the Observer was founded in 1791.



The Thirty Years' War (1618-48) pushed back the compulsory newspapers in Germany, and censorship in various forms was common throughout Europe. Sweden passed the first law in 1766 guaranteeing the freedom of the press.






The first daily in France, the Journal de Paris, was started in 1771, and the Journal des 89bats (1789), published until World War II, was established daily to report on sessions of the National Assembly. Papers multiplied during the revolution and then declined rapidly.



The first newspaper in the United States, Public Occurrence, both foreign and domestic (Boston, September 1690), was suppressed by the colonial governor after an issue. In 1704, the Boston Newspaper began publishing weekly, issued by the Postmaster. The Boston Gazette (1719) was printed by Benjamin Franklin's brother James Franklin. An independent newspaper is believed to have been published in the English colonies from James Franklin's New-England Currant (1721). Freedom of the press developed in 1735 when John Peter Zinger, publisher of a New York City newspaper, was acquitted of defending his political criticism based on facts. U.S. Freedom of the press in the United States was further protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution (1791). Much of the press in the new republic proved to be fiercely biased in the political battle between federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans.



Rotation in the low thousands was common for papers in the early 19th century. Increased literacy and technological advances in mechanical typesetting have made this possible through high-speed printing (rotary press), communication (telegraph and telephone) and transport (railways). Powered by papers in Great Britain and the United States, newspapers expanded their appeal and reduced prices. For example, in the mid-18th century, the Times increased the circulation from 5,000 to 18,000 (five pence) to 5,000. In the United States, Benjamin Day founded the Sun in New York City (1833) as the first successful penny paper. Two years later James Gordon Bennett started the New York Herald. He shaped many directions of modern journalism, with an emphasis on comprehensive coverage and entertainment. Horace Greeley, who crucified women's rights and against slavery, founded the Independent New York Tribune (1841). Another independent, though less inflammatory, paper, The New York Times, appeared 10 years later. By the middle of the 19th century, there were 400 daily and 3,000 weekly papers in the United States.

Press room of the New York Tribune in 1861.

Press room of the New York Tribune in 1861.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
What Happened was organized as a cooperative news-gathering venture by publishers from the Associated Press, New York, and Paul J. in London. Rutter started its foreign news service for (1858). The rivalry between Joseph Pulitzer and William Rand Helfhurst (Journal, 1895), who had owned the world since 1883 in New York City, led to an outpouring of so-called yellow journalism, Lurid and sensational news, and reactions to it in the late 1890s. Many papers in Western Europe became primarily components of political and literary opinion.
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